When To Grow Your Vegetables

Cool Season Vegetables:

Grow best when temperatures are between 10-20 degrees Celcius or even lower. They include: beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, onions, peas, spinach and turnips.

Intermediate Season Vegetables:

These are best between temperatures of 15-25 degrees. Include: beetroot, carrot, parsnip, celery, leek, lettuce, radish, silver beet.

Warm Season vegetables:

Are grown best when temperatures are above 20 degrees C. Include: Beans, capsicum, eggplant, potato, sweet corn, sweet potato, tomato and cucurbits (including cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins etc.)

-3″-3″0 days0 days0-70 days-5 months0 days-5 months0 days-5 months-3 months-3 months weeks after last frost-5+ months″ weeks after last frost0 days-5 months0-150 days-5 months″ deeper than current depth0 days-5 months-5 months-5 months
Plant type Date to Sow Indoors Date to Sow in Garden Seed Spacing P=Plants
R=Rows
Seed depth Maturity Comments
Asparagus n/a Perennial
Plant in early spring
P=12″
R=3-4 ft.
Second year Normally sold and planted as “crowns”
Soak crowns for 3 hours prior to planting
Apply a superphosphate fertilizer (0-20-0) before planting
Do not harvest the first year
Apply a heavy mulch in winter
Avocado Any Time Tree P=10 ft. -5 years Avocado seeds are also easily sprouted in a well-drained 4- or 5-inch pot of porous, fertile soil
Beans, bush n/a April-May P=4″
R=18-24″
½” Harvest when young and tender. Plant a fall vegetable in this area after harvest.
Beans, pole n/a May P=36″
R=48″
½-2″ Plant 4-6 seeds around a 6-8 inch pole or use a trellis.
Beets n/a April and again in June P=4″
R=18″
½” Thinned plants and beet tops may also be eaten. Dig and store in a cool place prior to the first freeze.
Broccoli n/a April-May P=24″
R=30-36″
½-1″ Harvest the main Broccoli heads before they open. The plant will produce an extended crop of smaller heads through the rest of the summer
Brussels Sprouts n/a Plants: early spring
Seeds: late June
P=18-24″
R=3 ft.
¼” Cool season crop
Harvest when small (1″-2″)
Will survive light frost
Cabbage Feb-March, Into garden in May April P=24″
R=24-36″
½” Requires a soil pH of 5.5 or higher. Feed with a high nitrogen fertilizer every 4 weeks.
Carrots n/a April and again in July P=2-4″
R=18-24″
½” Sow early, harvest when young. Sow successive plantings every three weeks.
Cauliflower Jan.-Feb. Into garden in May May P=15″
R=24-36″
½” Won’t tolerate high temperatures, harvest before the head opens up. Sow seeds for a second crop in May.
Corn (sweet) n/a May Successive plantings every 2 weeks P=3″
R=24″
Should be planted closely together in blocks rather than rows to insure good pollination. Corn is at it’s very sweetest the moment it is picked.
Cucumbers n/a May-June P=36-48″
R=36-48″
3-4 plants per mound
Spread a mulch of black plastic to the area before the vines begin to spread. Prompt harvesting will prolong the fruiting period.
Eggplants Feb.-March Set in garden in May P=24″
R=36″
¼” Use bedding plants in short season areas, Needs excellent drainge and warm soil.
Gourds n/a Last Frost P=12″ ¾” 20-180 days Gourds have a long growing season so you will want to get them started as early as possible.
Horseradish n/a Perennial
Plant in early spring
P=4 ft. First Fall Normally sold as a root cutting. Plant roots at slight downward angle. Requires moist, rich, organic soil.May become a weed
Kiwi n/a Set plants in early Spring Plant male vine and female vine one foot apart Node at ground level Second year Kiwi vines are dioecious (male and female flowers are borne on separate plants). Vines of both sexes must be grown to ensure pollination.
Lettuce Feb.-March Set in garden in early April April P=8-12″
R=18-24″
¼” 0-90 days Grows best in the cool temperatures of spring and fall. Needs very rich soil and lots of moisture. Plant successive crops every two weeks til the end of April.
Okra n/a P=12″
R=3-4 ft.
¾” 0-75 days Harvest when young (2″-3″)
Harvest often to encourage production
Choose fast maturing varieties
Onions February Set in garden in April Plant onion sets in April P=3″
R=12-18″
½” seeds 3-4 months sets 50-60 days Plant as early as possible. Apply a fertilizer high in phosphorus and potash. Onion sets may also be grown in planters.
Peanuts n/a Plant seeds in early April P=3″
R=30-36″
-1½” Fall Peanuts need a long, hot growing season. Plant them in early to mid April when the soil has warmed sufficiently.
Peas n/a April Successive plantings every 2 weeks P=3-6″ (double row)
R=72″
½-2″ Do best in cool temperatures, so plant early and harvest when the peas are young.
Peppers Feb.-March Set in garden in May May P=24″
R=24″
½” Do not provide too much nitrogen or you’ll have lots of plant, little fruit. A black plastic mulch will warm the soil and promote good growth.
Potatoes n/a April-May P=8″
R=36″
-6″ Plant a chunk of a ‘seed’ potato, containing 2 or more eyes. Harvest when the vine begins to die or has died completely. Leave the potatoes laying on the ground for a day to harden them and prevent bruising.
Pumpkins n/a May P=6-8″
R=36″
-4″ Pumpkins take up a lot of room, so sometimes it is better to plant them outside of the garden. Will tolerate a small amount of shade.
Radishes Feb.-March Into garden early April April P=1-3″
R=18-24″
½” 0 days Plant radishes early. They will go to flower when the warm temperatures arrive.
Raspberry n/a Late Fall/ Early Spring P=2 ft.
R=7-8 ft.
Early Summer Ever bearing varieties produce early summer crop on the previous season’s growth and a fall crop on the current season’s growth.
Rhubarb n/a Perennial
Plant in early spring
P=24″
R=24-36″
¾” Second spring Ready to harvest early in spring. Rhubarb likes soil high in organic material. Keep the bloom spikes cut off. Easily dividable.
Spinach n/a April P=6″
R=12-18″
½” Soil pH should be between 6.0 and 6.7 Apply nitrate of soda between the rows to stimulate growth. Harvest spinach when young or the plants will go to seed.
Squash n/a May-June P=36″
R=36″ 3-4 plants per mound
½-1″ Grows well in warm areas, prefers rich organic soil.
Strawberries n/a Late Fall/ Early Spring P=18″
R=18″
plant crown Varies Strawberries are easy to grow, perennial, winter hardy, and thrive in full sunshine.
Tomato March May P=30-36″
R=30-36″
½” Provide frost protection when first planted. Tomato plants may be trained on stakes, grown in cages, or allowed to crawl along the ground. Tomatoes will ripen after they have been picked.
Watermelons and muskmelons n/a May P=72″
R=72″ 1-2 plants per mound
Do best in sandy soil with plenty of added manure. Top dress with high nitrogen/potash fertilizer. Needs warm temperatures to mature.